Obesity Surgery in Turkey is an article that aims to give you all the information you do not know about Obesity Surgery in Turkey and more. We kindly shared the main headings with you;
- What is bariatric surgery? In what situations is it applied?
- Differences Between Obesity Surgery and Metabolic Surgery
- Does obesity cause other diseases?
- Who can have obesity surgery?
- The Relationship Between Body Mass Index (BMI) and Obesity
- How is body mass index measured?
- What are the risks of obesity surgery?
- How is the obesity surgery method chosen?
- Before and During the Obesity Surgery
- Obesity Surgery Methods
- Gastric Bypass
- Gastric Band
- Gastric Balloon
- Gastric Sleeve
- One-Incision Surgery with Laparoscopy
- After Obesity Surgery
- Exercise After Stomach Surgery
- Which foods should be consumed after gastric surgery?
What is bariatric surgery? In what situations is it applied?
Bariatric surgery also known as obesity surgery is the surgery that involves making changes to your digestive system to help you lose weight.
Differences Between Obesity Surgery and Metabolic Surgery
The term “metabolic syndrome” refers to a group of disorders that occur together and raise the risk of heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Excessive blood pressure, high blood sugar, extra body fat around the waist, and abnormal cholesterol or triglyceride levels are all examples of these disorders.
All individuals who require weight reduction surgery and have a very high weight should consider bariatric surgery. Metabolic surgery is used to treat diabetes and metabolic dysfunctions that have not responded to lifestyle and pharmaceutical changes.
Does obesity cause other diseases?
Obesity can lead to other diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, degenerative joint disorder, kidney and liver diseases, sleep apnea, asthma, and high cholesterol.
Who can have obesity surgery?
You may require bariatric surgery if losing weight with the help of the diets and exercise hasn’t worked for you in any way. You can also think about getting an obesity surgery if you’re suffering from serious health problems due to your overweight.
Obesity surgery in Turkey is performed on persons who are 18 to 65 years old.
The BMI is utilized as the foundation for basic medical weight-loss surgery requirements. Body mass index (BMI) is a method for calculating body fat percentage based on weight and height. Weight-loss surgery may be an option for an adult with a BMI of 40 or above. Adults who match the following three criteria may also be candidates for surgery:
- A BMI of 35 or over is considered obese.
- At least one medical issue linked to fat
- At least six months of attempting to lose weight under a doctor’s supervision
Weight-loss surgery may be a possibility for teenagers in some instances. The following is the rule:
- Medical conditions which are related to being overweight with a BMI of 35 or above
You’ll get a medical examination to rule out any undiagnosed obesity-related illnesses. Your doctor will also check for any issues that might make surgery more difficult. You may be subjected to testing for:
- Apnea (sleep deprivation)
- Cardiovascular disease (CVD)
- Kidney disease
- Hepatitis (liver disease)
If you have any of the following conditions, you will almost certainly be unable to have surgery:
- Disorders of blood clotting
- Anaesthesia is not safe to use because of severe heart disease.
- Other factors that raise the risk of anaesthetic use
The Relationship Between Body Mass Index (BMI) and Obesity
The BMI (body mass index) is a calculation that compares a person’s weight to their height. To put it another way, it’s calculated by multiplying a person’s weight in kilos by the square of their height in meters. It is extensively used to identify extra weight in children, teenagers, and adults due to lubrication. Despite the fact that the body mass index is almost identical to the body fat measurement, it does not provide a good picture of the lipid rate. In other words, it does not directly measure body fat but rather estimates it using an equation. Additional measurements should be taken to determine the quantity of fat and muscle in the individual’s body. As a result, the height-weight index is not regarded as a direct indicator of body fatness. The BMI is a metric that may be used to measure if someone is at a healthy or unhealthy weight. If the person’s BMI is high as a consequence of the computation, this might indicate that the person has too much fat in his or her body. To put it another way, a high BMI indicates an increased chance of acquiring ailments such as heart disease, high blood pressure, and diabetes. A low BMI indicates that the person is underweight for their height. This can also indicate the existence of a variety of conditions, including osteoporosis, a weakened immune system, and anaemia. As a result, the weight-height index, which can be readily computed to assist in maintaining an optimal weight, can assist a person in maintaining weight management and, more significantly, taking safeguards against health concerns that may arise as a result of their weight.
How is body mass index measured?
Body Mass Index (BMI) = Body Weight (kg.) / Height squared (m2.)
According to the World Health Organization (WHO); BMI below 18.5 is underweight, 18.5-24.9 is normal weight, 25.0-29.9 is classified as pre-obesity, 30.0-34.9 is obesity (also known as the obesity class I), 35.0-39.9 is obesity class II, above 40.0 is called as morbid obesity which is in obesity class III.
What are the risks of obesity surgery?
Dumping syndrome is a long-term risk of obesity surgery. Dumping syndrome is a collection of symptoms induced by rapid gastric emptying, including diarrhoea, nausea, and feeling light-headed or exhausted after a meal. Food passes too fast from the stomach to the duodenum (part of the small intestine) in a condition known as rapid gastric emptying. Patients can also experience low blood sugar, malnutrition and vomiting after a meal.
How is the obesity surgery method chosen?
Excess weight return is caused by adapting unconscious diets and abandoned activities that have been used for a long time to treat obesity. Obesity surgery in Turkey helps people embrace a healthy lifestyle by assuring lasting weight loss. However, selecting the appropriate approach is critical at this time. For example, gastric bypass is not suggested for a woman who wants to have a baby in the future, and a duodenal switch is not indicated for patients with overweight diabetes.
The treatment approach is chosen based on the patient’s level of obesity, and the most appropriate treatment strategy is used.
Before and During the Obesity Surgery
Laparoscopic surgery is the most common type of obesity surgery in Turkey done under general anaesthesia. However, some types of surgery are performed as conventional surgery. Pre and postoperative gastroenterologist care performed by a surgeon specializing in obesity surgery in Turkey is also an important process.
- The patient’s blood, urine and imaging tests are taken.
- The surgeon decides which type of surgery will be performed in line with the individual’s specific needs.
- The patient should not take blood thinners 8 hours before the operation. He must undergo surgery without eating or drinking anything.
During the operation; Anaesthesia is administered by the anesthesiologist and the patient’s vital functions are followed. After the surgery is over, the cut is closed with sutures and pain relief is applied to the patient. Depending on the type of surgery performed, the person has a hospital stay.
Obesity Surgery Methods
Obesity surgery in Turkey can be accomplished in a variety of ways. Preferred procedures; The kind of surgery is selected by assessing the patient’s health and BMI.
- Gastric Bypass
- Robotic Surgery
- Gastric Clamp
- Gastric Balloon
- Gastric sleeve
- One-incision surgery with laparoscopy
Drug therapy, diets, and exercise therapy are some of the ways that can be used following surgery in addition to the surgical procedure.
Gastric bypass is a technique of obesity surgery in Turkey that helps people lose weight by changing the size of the stomach and small intestine. Your doctor will make adjustments to your stomach and small intestine during gastric bypass surgery to modify the way your stomach absorbs and digests food. Your stomach shrinks after gastric bypass surgery.
By reducing the portion size your stomach can contain, restricting the number of calories and nutrients your body receives, and changing your gut hormones, gastric bypass can help you lose weight.
Gastric band; It is a type of treatment that can be applied to obese patients who cannot get enough or no success from the diet, exercise and other obesity treatments. Thanks to this technique, half of the excess weight can be removed within the first year. Gastric band application is suitable for obese patients who are about 40-50 kilos more than their ideal weight. The gastric band applied with the laparoscopic surgery method is completed in an average of 1 hour. General anaesthesia is applied to the patient for the surgery. In this method, which is entered through several surgical incisions in the abdomen, the recovery period is very short and the hospitalization period varies between 1 and 2 days.
The band attached during operation is not metal or metal derivative as it is thought. It is a form of treatment produced with silicone-derived materials in the form of a gastric band inserted. The gastric band is advanced through surgical incisions in the abdomen. The band, which is placed a few inches below the junction of the oesophagus and the stomach, is tightened like a belt during the procedure and is brought to sufficient stenosis. Since the area where it is squeezed is the entrance part of the stomach, a walnut-sized narrowed chamber is created in that area. Food coming into the stomach from the oesophagus first enters this small chamber. Since it is narrowed, direct passage to the stomach is prevented at normal speed. Foods progress to the stomach more slowly and at lesser levels. The patient begins to lose weight in a short time, as the rate of food is greatly reduced. Moreover, this method is effective in providing a feeling of fullness for a longer period of time in the patient. Thus, obese patients do not consume as much food as they used to, and they do not get hungry often.
The gastric balloon is an obesity surgery in Turkey that consists of a silicone or polyurethane balloon that is put in the stomach and then inflated with a sterile liquid. Although gastric balloon placement and removal are not surgical procedures, depending on the kind of balloon, certain gastric balloons are inserted and removed by endoscopy under anaesthesia.
The gastric balloon’s action mechanism is to create a continual sensation of fullness by taking up space in the stomach, allowing the patient to lose weight by eating less food at each meal. Today, swallowable gastric balloons are employed instead of endoscopy and anaesthetic.
Gastric balloons can last around 4 to 12 months in the stomach, depending on the type. During this time, the sense of fullness it provides is very appealing. The fullness it provides during this time makes it simpler for the patient to stick to his diet by restricting his food intake. After the balloon is removed from the stomach, the person’s nutritional style and eating habits alter, but he keeps these habits and maintains his optimal weight. It can be used by those who have a BMI of 27 or more, are between the ages of 18 and 70, and have never had bariatric surgery. A gastric balloon is also an alternative treatment option for individuals who do not want to undergo surgery.
Gastric sleeve surgeries performed under general anaesthesia are very popular. Gastric sleeve surgery is recommended for people who cannot lose enough weight with non-surgical methods (gastric balloons, etc.).
The operation performed under general anaesthesia and applied to reduce the stomach volume of the person is called sleeve gastrectomy surgery. The closed surgical method, namely the laparoscopic method, is preferred. This surgery is performed by opening 4 or, if necessary, 5 incisions, the largest of which is 1.3 cm, from the abdomen. An endoscopic camera that transmits all the organs of the patient and the current state of the abdomen in HD quality to the monitor screen enters through one of these holes. In undesirable cases such as uncontrolled bleeding and additional organ injuries that cannot be repaired by the closed method, it is possible to convert from laparoscopy to open surgery.
Gastric sleeve gastrectomy surgeries for stomach reduction can take an average of 45 minutes. However; Considering some details such as preparation for the surgery, the patient’s anaesthesia, and the post-operative awakening process, a sleeve gastrectomy surgery can take approximately 1.5 hours in total.
One-incision surgery with laparoscopy
Single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) is a minimally invasive surgical method in which the surgeon operates solely through a single entry point rather than the four or more laparoscopic incisions that are typically used. This incision is frequently buried within the belly button, leaving patients with no visible scars.
With SILS, the patient will have less scarring, less postoperative discomfort, a faster recovery period, and a lower chance of wound site infections.
SILS operations necessitate the use of a trained laparoscopic surgeon with extensive expertise.
This treatment is not appropriate for all patients. The size of the liver, body mass index (BMI), and past procedures all play a role in the decision. During a patient’s initial consultation, this will be discussed.
After Obesity Surgery
You can expect to drop a significant amount of weight. If you have a weight-related medical issue, such as sleep apnea, your symptoms may improve following the obesity surgery. Almost everyone who has obesity surgery reports an improvement in their quality of life. You might lose weight for up to 2 or 3 years following surgery, depending on the treatment.
The majority of obesity operations are laparoscopic, meaning the surgeon just makes minor incisions. In conclusion, the required healing time is shortened.
Patients stay in the hospital for 2 to 3 days and they can return to their normal activities in 3 to 5 weeks. Obesity surgery can result in both short-term and long-term problems. The kind of operation has an impact on the long-term risks. Constipation, dumping syndrome, gallstones, and wound infections are all typical adverse effects. Constipation is a typical side effect of gastric surgery. Granular fibre (Metamucil or psyllium) might induce blockages, therefore avoid it. After obesity surgery, consuming high-sugar meals causes the dumping syndrome. Often, sodas or fruit juices are to blame. The sweet meal rushes through the stomach, causing nausea, vomiting, and weakness in some people. When you lose a lot of weight rapidly, gallstones are prevalent. After gastric bypass surgery, up to 50% of patients will develop gallstones, which are typically harmless. Gallstones can induce nausea, vomiting, and stomach discomfort in certain people. After gastric bypass surgery, between 15% to 25% of patients require surgery to remove their gallbladder.
Surgical wound infections can happen up to three weeks after the surgery. Redness and warmth, discomfort, and heavy discharge from the surgical site are all symptoms. Infections in the wounds necessitate medication and, in some cases, further surgery.
Exercise After Stomach Surgery
Physical activity after stomach surgery will help you recover faster. It will help improve your circulation, reduce the risk of blood clots, speed up wound healing and improve your bowel function. Short walks are possible. Stairs can be used instead of elevators. Walking is encouraged regularly to increase your physical activity level. You should increase the distance and intensity according to yourself, and 10,000 steps per day can be targeted upon the recommendations of your surgeon.
Which foods should be consumed after gastric surgery?
The long-term success of the surgery after gastric surgery is very much related to following the recommended diet. No solid food should be taken for 2 weeks after surgery. The liquid food diet should be followed by soft watery food. In order to get enough protein, calcium and other nutrients, liquid food should be based on milk. Ideally, milk with a low-fat content should be selected. Drinks should be drunk slowly. When the feeling of satiety is felt, drinking/eating should be stopped. When you reach a point of satiety, you should quit drinking or eating. Nothing else should be consumed or eaten until the stomach discomfort or nausea has subsided. If you overconsume, your stomach will be totally filled, and vomiting will start. Carbonated beverages should not be consumed since they create gas development in the stomach, enlarge the stomach, and cause early pain and maybe vomiting. Multivitamin and mineral supplements can be taken on a daily basis.